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Greathouse of Augusta County, VA
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Letters From Yellow Creek 1774
The "Battle of Yellow Creek" occurred on 30 April 1774, when the family of a Mingo Indian named Logan, along with some other Indians were killed by a group of white men led by Daniel Greathouse. Logan's brother, mother, and sister and other Indians went from their camp at the mouth of Yellow Creek (on the Ohio side of the Ohio River) to Joshua Baker's cabin in Baker's Bottom (on the Virginia side of the river). After hearing the report of gunfire from Joshua Baker's cabin, other Indians crossed the Ohio River; ten Indians were killed.
At the time of the massacre, Joshua Baker's cabin at Baker's Bottom (near present-day Newell, WV) was in the West Augusta District of Virginia, on land which became part of Yohogania County, VA. Land in the West Augusta District was ceded to the counties of Monongalia, Ohio, and Yohogania when those counties were created by Virginia on 8 November 1776.
Excerpt: Brantz Mayer, Tah-gah-jute: or, Logan and Cresap, an historical essay, 1867. Page iii, Preface.
I adopted this subject [the story of Logan the Indian and Cresap the Pioneer], not only because the history of Logan's speech, which has given celebrity to both these persons, was likely to secure the attention of an audience, but because, while it afforded an opportunity to vindicate the reputation of a patriotic Marylander, it enabled me also to expose the danger of considering as always unquestionable what are called the facts of history, and to inculcate the caution with which we should receive or record the condemnation of individuals.
1773, Feb 26 - WESTMORELAND created from BEDFORD. (Pa. Stat., ch. 678, sec. 1/8:314)
1773, Feb 27 - Justices of County Courts and Justices of the Peace Appointed, Westmoreland County, PA
The day after the passage of the act [which created Westmoreland County, PA], Governor Richard Penn sent to the Assembly a list of names of those he had selected for justices of the county courts and justices of the peace. These names were: James Hamilton, Joseph Turner, William Logan, Richard Peters, Lynford Lardner, Benjamin Chew, Thomas Cadwalader, James Tilghman, Andrew Allen, Edward Shippen, Jr., William Crawford, Arthur St. Clair, Thomas Gist, Alexander McKee, Robert Hanna, William Lochry, George Wilson, William Thompson, Aeneas McKay, Joseph Speer, Alexander McLean, James Cavett, William Bracken, James Pollock, Samuel Sloan, and Michael Rugh, Esqrs.
1773, Oct 11 - WESTMORELAND overlapped by West Augusta District (Va.) when Virginia asserted its control over the Pittsburgh region. (Abernethy, 94)
1774, Apr 21 - Broadside Circular: John Connolly sent out a broadside circular, which spread fear about increasing Indian hostilities towards Whites throughout the frontier, along the Ohio River and warned settlers to evacuate to the safety of the forts.
1774, Apr 25 - Proclamation of Earl Dunmore
Proclamation of Earl Dunmore, 1774.
Excerpt: Whereas, I have Reason to apprehencd that the Government of Pennsylvania, in prosecution of the Claim to Pittsburg and its Dependencies, will endeavour to obstruct his Majesty's Government thereof under my Administration, by illegal and unwarrantable Commitments of the Officers I have appointed for that Purpose, and that that Settlement is in some Danger of Annoyance from the Indians also ...
1774, Between Apr 30 and May 21 - Extract of a Journal of the United Bretheren's Mission on Muskingum
Extract of a Journal of the United Bretheren's Mission on Muskingum, 1774. From February 21st [April 30th] to May 20th, 1774.
1774, May 1 - Letter: Cpt. Crawford and Mr. Neville interviewed a member of the Greathouse party, who participated in the affair at Yellow Creek on 30 Apr 1774.
Article: 1774 - Letter: Crawford/Neville Interviewed a Member of Greathouse Party Present at "Battle of Yellow Creek"
1774, May 6 - Letter: Valentine Crawford to Washington
Reports on the hardships caused by fear spreading along the frontier, because of the "Battle of Yellow Creek".
1774, May 7 - Letter: Valentine Crawford to Washington
Excerpt: The exact date of this exploit of Greathouse and party, usually known as the "Yellow Creek Massacre", albeit... "Battle of Yellow Creek", may have been a more accurate title for this event, so long a matter of uncertainty, is fixed by the above [Valentine Crawford's letter], beyond a peradventure — Saturday, April 30, 1774. The Mingo, Logan's brother, known as John Petty, his mother and sister — the latter the mother of the child, then only two months old — were all slain. The child prisoner being Logan's niece, it follows that his relatives were not all killed.
1774, May 8 - Letter: No. 24. William Crawford To Washington.
Excerpt: The surveyors that went down the Kanawha  as report goes, were stopped by the Shawanese Indians,  upon which some of the white people attacked some Indians and killed several, took thirty horse-loads of skins near the mouth of Scioto; on which news, and expecting an Indian war, Mr. Cresap  and some other people fell on some other Indians at the mouth of Pipe creek, killed three, and scalped them. Daniel Greathouse and some others fell on some at the mouth of Yellow creek  and killed and scalped ten, and took one child about two months old, which is now at my house.
1774, May 20 - A Speech of the Shawanese [Cornstalk] to Alex. McKee
A speech from Cornstalk was delivered to Alex McKee and others at Wheeling, VA on 20 May 1774, in which Cornstalk discussed the mischiefs arising between the Shawanese and the Virginians, which led to the massacre at Yellow Creek. Cornstalk also reported on how a party of Pennsylvania traders who had spent the winter of 1773/74 hunting and trappling along the Ohio River, below Hockhocking Creek, had been protected and given safe passage back to Wheeling.
1774, May 24 - Letter: The Cosh, (alias John Bull)
Excerpt: We hastened to get home again & after our return received the News that a Company of Virginians under one Cresop enticed some of the Mingoes living at the mouth of Yellow Creek to the other side of the River and gave them Rum to make them drunk, & then they killed 5 ; two others crossing the River to look after their Friends were shot down as soon as they came ashore. 5 more were going over the River whom they also waylaid, but the Indians perceiving them, turned their Canoe to make their Escape, but being immediately fired at two were killed and two wounded.
1774, May 27 - Letter: Dorsey Pentecost for John Connoly, to Capt. Joel Reece
Excerpt: "As I have received intelligence that Logan, a Mingo Indian, with about twenty Shawnees and others, were to set off for war last Monday, and I have reason to believe that they may come upon the inhabitants about Wheeling, I hereby order ...
1774, May 29 - Letter: Arthur St. Clair to Gov. Penn
Excerpt: The mischief done by Cressap and Great House had been much exaggerated when I wrote Mr. Shippen, but the number of Indians killed is exactly as I informed Mr. Allen, viz: thirteen.
1774, Jun 10 - Letter: Alexander McKee, Esq., Agent for Indian Affairs at Fort Pitt
Extract of a Letter from Alex'r McKee, Esqr., Ageng for Indian Affairs at Fort Pitt
Dated June 10th, 1774.*
"You must ere this be acquainted with the critical Situation of this Country -- the unhappy disturbances which have lately arose between the Virginians and the Natives, the event of which Still continues doubtful whether matters will be brought to a general rupture or Accomodation.
1774, Jun 10 - Letter: Devereux Smith to Dr. Smith
Pittsburgh, June 10th, 1774.
Excerpt: As Mr. Butler was under the necessity of sending People to assist in bringing his Peltry from the Shawny Towns, he sent off another Canoe on the 24th of April, in care of two Indians who were well known to be good men, and two White men; on the 27th, about 90 miles from here, they were fired upon from Shore, and both the Indians were killed by Michael Cresap and a party he had with him, they also scalped the Indians. Mr. Cresap then immediately followed the above mentioned Shawneese Chiefs some small distance down, where they were encamped, and fired upon them, killed one and wounded two more. The Indians fled to the Delaware Towns, which were the nearest, and are greatly Exasperated at this treatment, as they did not expect any such thing from the English. About that same time a party headed by one Gratehouse, barbarously Murthered and Scalped nine Indians at the House of one Baker, near Yellow Creek, about 55 miles down the river. Owing to these cruelties committed by Cresap and Gratehouse, the Inhabitants of Racoon and Weiling [Wheeling] fled from that Settlement, and are chiefly gone to Virginia.
1774, July 4 - Letter: Arthur St. Clair to Gov. Penn
Ligonier, July 4th, 1774.
Sir: I have the Honour to inclose you the last piece of Indian Intelligence, which came by Capt. White Eyes a few days ago, and am very happy that Affairs have so peacable and Aspect, yet I cannot suppress my Fears that it will soon be interrupted, as a large Body of Virginians are certainly in motion.
1774, Aug 23 - Deposition: Richard Butler, Account of the Rise of the Indian War
Account Of The Rise Of The Indian War, 1774.
As there is many different opinions concerning the Indian War it is the duty of every well meaning Person to declare what they know concerning it, the rise of it, and their opinion with regard to the Intent of the Natives. Therefore I do here briefly declare all I know of the matter, likewise the manner that the Shawanese Tribe behaved while I was amongst them, and the Treatment their People received while at Pittsburgh, after escorting the Property of the different Traders to this Place.
1776, Nov 8 - WESTMORELAND overlapped by MONONGALIA (W.Va.), OHIO (W.Va.), and YOHOGANIA (extinct), all created by Virginia to replace West Augusta District. (Cappon, Petchenik, and Long, 93; Hening, 9:262-274)
1780, Oct 1 - WESTMORELAND overlap by MONONGALIA (W.Va.), OHIO (W.Va.), and YOHOGANIA (extinct) ended when Virginia gave up claim to area. (Crumrine, "Boundary Controversy," 521-523; Van Zandt, 83)
1796, Oct 29 - The Journal of Andrew Ellicott: Harman Greathouse implicated in the killings at Yellow Creek
Excerpt: " 29th, . . . Encamped in the evening opposite to the Mingo bottom which is rendered memorable for the inhuman murder of the Indians of that name, who resided on it, either by, or at the instigation of Capt. Cresap, Harman Greathouse, and a few others. This outrage was followed by a war of retaliation, which continued for many years with a cruelty scarcely to be equalled in the annals of history.
1797, Apr 19 - Deposition: Benjamin Tomlinson on "Battle of Yellow Creek". Logan and Treaty of Camp Charlotte, in court at Cumberland, MD
The first witness we introduce is Benjamin Tomlinson, Esq., who is still living—a man universally respected, and whose testimony no man dare to call in question. It is given by way of interrogatory.
1798, Apr 18 - Affidavit: William Huston, Regarding Murders Along Ohio River, Apr 1774
I, William Huston, of Washington County, in the State of Pennsylvania, do hereby certify to whom it may concern: That in the year 1774 I resided at Catfish's Camp, on the main path from Wheeling to Redstone; that Michael Cresap, who resided on or near the Potomac River, on his way up from the river Ohio, at the head of a party of armed men, lay some time at my cabin.
1798, Jun 17 - Letter: George Rogers Clark to Dr. Samuel Brown, Subject: Cresap's conduct on the Ohio River in 1774
The conduct of Cresap I am perfectly acquainted with. He was not the author of that murder, but a family by the name of Greathouse;—though some transactions that happened under the command of Captain Cresap, a few days previous to the murder of Logan's family, gave him sufficient ground to suppose that it was Cresap that had done the injury.
Brantz Mayer, Tah-gah-jute: or, Logan and Cresap, an historical essay, J. Munsell, 1867. Original from Harvard University, Digitized Oct 8, 2008. Page iii, Preface.View @ Google Books
John Newton Boucher, Author; John Woolf Jordan, Editor; History of Westmoreland county, Pennsylvania, Volume 1, Lewis Publishing Co., 1906. Original from Harvard University, Digitized Aug 4, 2007. Page 45, Justices of County Courts and Justices of the Peace Appointed. View @ Google Books
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